The United States is currently negotiating a large, regional free trade agreement with eleven other countries: Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam. On August 5, 2015, Knowledge Ecology International published a new leak of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement’s (TPP) negotiating text for the intellectual property chapter. This text, dated May 11, 2015 reflects the state of the negotiations prior to the recent Ministerial meeting in Hawaii (and new agreements may have been made during the recent TPP meeting). This latest leak reveals some substantial changes from last year’s October leak of the text by WikiLeaks (which revealed the state of negotiations as of May 14, 2014).

In general, the more recent text shows some improvement over last year’s text, although serious problems remain.


Copyright Term

The copyright term has not yet been agreed to, and it has widely been considered to be a political decision to be determined by the trade ministers. Currently, there is a wide range of proposals available for copyright term, ranging from life plus 50 years, to life plus 70 years, to life plus 100 years when based on the life of an author. For corporate works, there are four proposed terms of 50, 70, 75 or 95 years. These are wide ranging proposals and longer copyright terms exacerbate the orphan works problem and hamper the public domain. The potential for excessively long copyright terms that far exceed international standards is one of the largest remaining flaws in the agreement from the perspective of access to knowledge and information. Countries should resist copyright term extension, particularly given the lack of evidence supporting these extensive copyright terms.

Japan’s proposal, which appeared in the previous leak, similar to the Berne rule of shorter term remains. This rule would essentially allow parties to limit the term of protection provided to authors of another party to the term provided under that party’s legislation. For example, if the final TPP text required a period of copyright protection of life plus fifty years, the United States would not be required to provide its period of life plus seventy years to authors in New Zealand, if New Zealand continued to provide a term of life plus fifty years. The United States does not currently implement the Berne rule of shorter term.


In last year’s leaked text, Article QQ.G.X appeared for the first time and was unbracketed, signaling agreement by the TPP negotiating parties. This provision read, “No Party may subject the enjoyment and exercise of the rights of authors, performers and producers of phonograms provided for in this Chapter to any formality.” As noted in last year’s analysis by ARL, the language was potentially problematic for countries wanting to re-introduce formalities for copyright protections granted that go beyond minimum international standards. The Register of Copyrights Maria Pallante, for example, proposed the re-introduction of formalities for the last twenty years of copyright protection in the United States, which would have violated the TPP if a period of life plus seventy years was also agreed to.

Although this provision was unbracketed in the 2014 text, it appears from the current leak that this ban on formalities has been removed. The removal of this language is significant as it would not only permit the reintroduction of formalities for the last twenty years of copyright term in the United States, but also allows for formalities in other areas. For example, formalities can be required in order to be eligible for certain remedies for copyright infringement. It could be used to address the orphan works problem by establishing registries in order to receive damages or an injunction for works that are still protected under copyright in the United States, but go beyond the terms required by international law. Footnote 160 in the current leak appears to allow such arrangements, providing that “For greater certainty, in implementing QQ.G.6, nothing prevents a Party from promoting certainty for the legitimate use and exploitation of works, performances and phonograms during their terms of protection, consistent with QQ.G.16 [limitations and exceptions] and that Party’s international obligations.”

Limitations and Exceptions

The language from the previous leak on limitations and exceptions, including a reference to the Marrakesh Treaty, remains in the text and is particularly welcome, given that it has not been included in previous US free trade agreements. The language provides that

Each Party shall endeavor to achieve an appropriate balance in its copyright and related rights system inter alia by means of limitations or exceptions that are consistent with Article QQ.G.16.1, including those for the digital environment, giving due consideration to legitimate purposes such as, but not limited to: criticism; comment; news reporting; teaching, scholarship, research and other similar purposes; and facilitating access to published works for persons who are blind, visually impaired or otherwise print disabled.[164] [165] 

[164] As recognized by the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who are Blind, Visually Impaired or Otherwise Print Disabled (June 27, 2013). The Parties recognize that some Parties facilitate the availability of works in accessible formats for beneficiaries beyond the requirements of the Marrakesh Treaty.

[165] For purposes of greater clarity, a use that has commercial aspects may in appropriate circumstances be considered to have a legitimate purpose under Article QQ.G.16.3

Footnote 164, which references the Marrakesh Treaty, now includes an additional sentence that recognizes that some parties provide for limitations and exceptions for beneficiaries that go beyond the requirements of the Marrakesh Treaty. Currently, ten parties have ratified the Marrakesh Treaty and an additional ten are required for entry into force. Singapore and Mexico, both negotiating parties to the TPP, have already ratified the Marrakesh Treaty, and Canada has introduced a bill paving the way for implementation of the Treaty. A number of other TPP negotiating parties have signed the treaty, signaling an intention to ratify, including Australia, Chile, Peru, and the United States.

Technological Protection Measures

Last year’s leak revealed language that permits parties to provide limitations and exceptions to technological protection measures “in order to enable non-infringing uses where there is an actual or likely adverse impact of those measures on non-infringing uses.” The leak also revealed that the three-year rulemaking process to create these limitations and exceptions, as earlier proposed by the United States, was removed. The current leak maintains this language, but drops the reference to the three-step test (though the language on limitations and exceptions remains the same) and also eliminates Chile’s proposal that the process for establishing limitations and exceptions requires consideration of “evidence presented by beneficiaries with respect to the necessity of the creation of such exception and limitation.”

Overall, this language is an improvement over the United States’ initial proposal from 2011 regarding technological protection measures, which only allowed for a closed list of specific limitations and exceptions while others could be added through a three-year rulemaking process, because it would allow for new permanent limitations and exceptions to allow for circumvention of TPMs. Such permanent limitations and exceptions could be granted for cell-phone unlocking. However, the language does assume that parties need to provide for limitations and exceptions, even for non-infringing uses.

Article QQ.G.10(c) maintains the unfortunate language that “a violation of a measure implementing this paragraph is independent of any infringement that might occur under the Party’s law on copyright and related rights.” Establishing that the circumvention of a technological protection measure is independent of any copyright infringement negatively impacts legitimate, non-infringing circumvention. It is unfortunate that this language not only remains in the text, but is unbracketed, meaning that countries have agreed to this flawed provision.

Internet Service Providers

The text on Internet Service Providers appears in an addendum and contains important caveats that the text is “Without Prejudice” and “Parties are still considering this proposal and reserve their position on the entire section.” Thus, even where language is unbracketed, it does not necessarily reflect agreement.

The current leak reveals that the text contains significant flexibilities that did not previously exist. For example, the United States and Canada have proposed language that would continue to allow Canada’s notice-and-notice system, rather than require the United States notice-and-takedown system. It appears to protect Canada’s system as one that “forward[s] notices of alleged infringement” but requires that the system exist in the Party “upon the date of entry into force of this Agreement.” If this language is agreed to, it could therefore be conceivable that other parties to the TPP could implement systems of notice-and-notice, provided that they do so before entry into force of the TPP. Similarly, footnote 299 appears to allow Japan to maintain its safe harbor framework.

In last year’s leak, Peru had proposed a footnote that now appears in the general text of the section on ISPs. This paragraph now reads, “It is understood that the failure of an Internet service provider to qualify for the limitations in paragraph 1 does not itself result in liability. Moreover, this article is without prejudice to the availability of other limitations and exceptions to copyright, or any other defences under a Party’s legal system.” This language provides a helpful clarification and clearly establishes the language as a safe harbor, not as a direct creation of liability where an ISP does not qualify for the limitations set forth under the agreement.

General Provisions

In addition to improvements in the copyright section, there appears to be agreement on positive language regarding general provisions. Many of the positive proposals regarding general provisions in last year’s leak were bracketed and not yet agreed to.

The objectives now read:

The protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights should contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology, to the mutual advantage of producers and users of technological knowledge and in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare, and to a balance of rights and obligations.

Additionally, principles that had previously been agreed to by six parties now appear unbracketed and specifically reference the public interest and address the need to prevent abuse of intellectual property rights by right holders:

1.  Parties may, in formulating or amending their laws and regulations, adopt measures necessary to protect health and nutrition, and to promote the public interest in sectors of vital importance to their socio­economics and technological development, provided that such measures are consistent with the provisions of this Chapter.

2.  Appropriate measures, provided that they are consistent with the provisions of this Chapter, may be needed to prevent the abuse of intellectual property rights by right holders or the resort to practices which unreasonably restrain trade or adversely affect the international transfer of technology.

There is also new language, which appears to be mostly agreed to, that promotes the dissemination of knowledge and information. In addition, Chile and Canada have proposed language, which the United States and Japan oppose, emphasizing the importance of the public domain. This article, “Understandings in respect of this Chapter” reads:

Having regard to the underlying public policy objectives of national systems, the Parties recognise the need to:

  • promote innovation and creativity;
  • facilitate the diffusion of information, knowledge, technology, culture and the arts; and
  • foster competition and open and efficient markets;

through their intellectual property systems, while respecting the principles of transparency and due process, and taking into account the interests of relevant stakeholders, including rights holders, service providers, users and the public [CL/CA propose; US/JP oppose; and acknowledging the importance of preserving the public domain.]

It is disappointing that the United States would oppose language acknowledging the importance of preserving the public domain, which provides a storehouse of raw materials from which individuals can draw from to learn and create new ideas or works. The public domain is essential in fostering new creativity and advancing knowledge.

Proportionality in Enforcement

While this analysis does not cover the section on enforcement in detail, there is one significant positive improvement from previous texts. Under the general enforcement provisions, there is new text that appears to be agreed to language that is replicated from the text of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) and would require parties to “take into account the need for proportionality between the seriousness of the intellectual property infringement, and the applicable remedies and penalties, as well as the interests of third parties.” Inclusion of this language is a welcome improvement to the text of the enforcement section.


Overall, the text of the copyright section as well as some other key provisions reflect improvements over the initial intellectual property chapter proposed by the United States in February 2011. The section on technological protection measures no longer limits the limitations and exceptions to a closed list and does not impose a three-year rulemaking process. It would allow for permanent limitations and exceptions to anti-circumvention provisions. Additionally, the text shows greater flexibility with respect to ISPs and appears much less complicated than it initially did. Furthermore, the current text reflects agreement on positive language with respect to limitations and exceptions and a reference to the Marrakesh Treaty has been included. The removal of the formalities language that appeared in last year’s text is also a welcome improvement. General provisions and enforcement language has also seen improvements.

While there have been improvements in the text, there are still concerning elements, the biggest of which is the potential for locking-in current lengthy and excessive copyright terms as well as the possibility of even requiring further extension to life plus 100 years. Additionally, the requirement that circumvention of a technological protection measure be independent from copyright infringement is illogical and prevents circumvention for legitimate, non-infringing purposes.